<div align="left" style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px"> <p>Space Instrumentation Lab</p> </div>


E-Winds, a NASA-funded program to measure the time history of the nighttime E-region neutral winds, launched 30 June 2003 from Wallops Flight Facility, VA. In addition to collecting data that will help researchers discover how these winds relate to the formation and descent of intermediate layers, E-Winds also performed the first measurements of the layer of ion composition after it had descended below 120 km.

Absolute plasma density was measured on the instrumented payload and the three mother-daughter payloads, using a Plasma Frequency Probe (PFP) and Plasma Sweeping Probe (PSP) instrument combination provided by SDL. As a backup, a plasma density measurement technique and a means of data comparison, a Direct Current Probe (DCP) instrument, was included in the SDL science instrumentation package. The PFP/PSP/DCP instrument suite is commonly referred to as the Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP). In a secondary science mission role, the PIP also measured plasma collisional frequencies, ion-ion resonance characteristics, and plasma temperature.